Construction of The Real Numbers

DEFINITION1: The set $\mathbb{R}$ with at least two distinct elements and satisfying the following five axioms is called the set of real numbers and each element of $\mathbb{R}$ is called a real number:

The function $+:\mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ defined as $\left( x,y \right)\to x+y\in \mathbb{R}$ for each $\left( x,y \right)$ in $\mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{R}$ satisfies the following properties:

I${{}_{1}}.\,\forall a,b\in \mathbb{R},a+b=b+a$,

I${{}_{2}}.\,\forall a,b,c\in \mathbb{R},a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c$,

Partial Order Relation

DEFINITION1: Let $X$ be a set and $R\subset{X\times{X}}$. If the relation $R$ is reflexive, antisymmetric and transitive, then the relation $R$ is called a "partial order relation" and denoted by $R=\le$ in general. If "$\le$" is a partial order relation over a set $X$, then $(X,\le)$ is called "partially ordered set" or shortly "poset".

DEFINITION2: Let $x$ and $y$ are elements of a partially ordered set $X$. If it holds “$x\le{y}\lor{y\le{x}}$”, then $x$ and $y$ are called “comparable”. Otherwise they are called “incomparable”.

DEFINITION3: If $x$ and $y$ are comparable for all $x,y$ in a partially ordered set $(X,\le)$, then the relation $\le$ is called a “total order” and the set $X$ is called a “totally ordered set” or “linearly ordered set”.

DEFINITION4: Let $(X,\le)$ be a partially ordered set and $A\subset{X}$. If $(A,\le)$ is a totally ordered set, then $A$ is called a “chain” in $X$.

DEFINITION5: Let $(X,\le)$ be a partially ordered set and $A\subset{X}$. If there exists an element $a^{*}\in{A}$ satisfying $a\le{a^{*}}$ for all $a\in{A}$, then $a^{*}$ is called the maximum of $A$, and if there exists an element $a_{*}\in{A}$ satisfying $a_{*}\le{a}$ for all $a\in{A}$, then $a_{*}$ is called the minimum of $A$. The minimum and the maximum of $A$ are denoted by $\min{A}$ and $\max{A}$ respectively.